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Evolutionary Dogma, Not Science, Kicks Out Adam

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Secular geneticists continue to claim that humans did not come from a literal Adam and Eve.1 But if clues in the human genome do not reject Adam from our ancestry, then why would scientists insist that he was not real?

A University of Sheffield news release titled “Putting ‘Adam’ in his rightful place in evolutionary history” introduced efforts led by professor Eran Elhaik to refute the confusing results of a 2013 report showing that the male ancestors of humanity predated the female ancestors by hundreds of thousands of years.2

To be clear, the media have borrowed the name Adam as a convenient reference to an ancestral male genotype found across an entire ancient population. They don’t refer to the biblical Adam in any literal sense. Elhaik in particular “doesn’t believe that Moses, Aaron, or the 12 tribes of Israel ever existed,” let alone ancient Adam.3

At least he is consistent—if Adam was not real, then all of Scripture is called into question since the core historical events it records and the core spiritual truths it communicates all rely on a literal Adam: “For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive.”4

Why not believe in Adam? Do we have genetic features that preclude the existence of the progenitor of all humanity?

The short answer is no. Secular population geneticists consistently insist on using historical models that reject Adam and Eve out of hand. For example, the authors of the paper that Elhaik rebutted, published in The American Journal of Human Genetics, assumed that humans evolved from a chimp-like ancestor when they constructed their supposed timeline. They wrote, “The ancestral state of each polymorphic site was inferred with pairwise alignments between the human and chimpanzee reference sequences.”5

For them, chimpanzees have replaced Adam.

And even Elhaik’s rebuttal “used conventional biological models to date our most common male ancestor ‘Adam’ in his rightful place in evolutionary history.”2 “Conventional” dogma ensures evolution, and “models” based on it interfinger measurements with evolutionary assumptions. This stance rejects biblical history not because of data, but before the data are even approached.

Dogmatic insistence on evolution no matter the data isn’t new. Last year, when Elhaik and his former supervising professor, Dan Graur, tried to put the spectacular ENCODE results into their proper evolutionary place, they only succeeded in showing that baseless assertions, unscientific rhetoric, and circular arguments masked unfounded evolutionary assumptions.6

In contrast to dogma-first models that replace a recent Adam with eons of apes, a new data-first study of mitochondrial DNA reports that mankind only carries a few thousand years’ worth of polymorphic sites—consistent with biblical history.7

Both atheistic and theistic evolutionists believe they must toss Adam under the evolutionary bus to preserve the past they prefer, but they certainly have no scientific reason to do so. The data continue to support a recent creation of the man Adam from whom all humanity descended.


If they are right, then they must know better than Jesus, who referred to the first couple as real people. See Mark 10:6.
Putting ‘Adam’ in his rightful place in evolutionary history. University of Sheffield news release. Posted on January 22, 2014, accessed January 29, 2014.
Rubin, R. ‘Jews a Race’ Genetic Theory Comes Under Fierce Attack by DNA Expert. The Jewish Daily Forward. Posted on May 7, 2013, accessed January 29, 2014.
1 Corinthians 15:22.
Mendez, F. L. et al. 2013. An African American Paternal Lineage Adds an Extremely Ancient Root to the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. American Journal of Human Genetics. 92 (3): 454-459.
Jeanson, N. and B. Thomas. The Resurrection of ‘Junk DNA’? Creation Science Update. Posted on March 20, 2013, accessed January 29, 2014.
Jeanson, N. 2013. Recent, Functionally Diverse Origin for Mitochondrial Genes from ~2700 Metazoan Species. Answers Research Journal. 6: 467-501.
* Mr. Thomas is Science Writer at the Institute for Creation Research.

Article posted on February 14, 2014.

Misunderstanding (or other) of the Concept of mtEve

Our evolutionist colleague shows his ignorance of basic science in posting this:

mtEve is the most recent female ancestor of the human race, not the first female ancestor. mtEve had both female and male ancestors herself. So the laughable attempt of Creationists to equate her with the Biblical Eve fails on definitional grounds. PBS Eons provides an excellent definition of mtEve:

First only females pass on mtDNA.

Second the most recent ancestor of the human race not the first? Well human DNA shows only approx. 6500 years as subsequent research has shown- especially factoring in mutation rates.

So what would the most recent female ancestor be around 6500 years ago? According ot evolutionist time frames homosapien neandertalis and homo sapien sapien coexisted and that neandertal went extinct c. 45k years ago!

Appalling Evolutionist ignorance on mitochondrial Eve.

Once again note the dates in the footnotes! Long after the supposed flawed study our evolutionist cherry picker colleague has cried about!

Genetic Clocks Verify Recent Creation

The idea of an evolutionary genetic clock in which DNA sequences steadily change, like a clock ticking off time, has played a major role in the ideas shaping modern biology. As employed by evolutionists, this time-measuring technique compares DNA sequences between different species to estimate supposed rates of evolution based on the amount of changes in individual DNA letters (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA. When two totally different types of creatures are compared (e.g., horses and chickens), their differences are made to match up with evolutionary time through a procedure that calibrates the data with deep-time estimates taken from paleontology.1 While scientists that work in the field know this, the general public is completely unaware of this little trick.

Despite the fact that the genetic clock data are clearly manipulated to conform to vast amounts of evolutionary time, the results rarely support the overall evolutionary story. In fact, the following problems are often encountered.

Different genes give widely different evolutionary rates.
Different types of organisms exhibit different rates for the same type of gene sequences.
Genetic-clock dates that describe when these creatures supposedly split off to form new creatures (called divergence) commonly disagree with paleontology’s timescale despite being calibrated by it.1
What kind of data would researchers get if the assumptions of evolution and deep time were not used to bias the molecular-clock models? Would the DNA sequence variation actually provide usable information to help test creationist predictions about origins? Interestingly, we have a variety of reported studies from both secular scientists and creationist researchers in which DNA clocks were measured empirically—without deep-time calibrations—and yielded ages of only 5,000 to 10,000 years, not millions. Each of these test cases are discussed below, but first let’s visit the closely related concept of genetic entropy.

Genomic Entropy and Genetic Clocks

During the production of egg and sperm, DNA mutations can occur and be passed on to the next generation. When these are empirically measured within a family’s pedigree, an estimate of the mutation rate can be achieved. Scientists have actually measured this rate in humans in a number of studies and found it to be between 75 and 175 mutations per generation.2-6

Using this known data about mutation rates, a variety of researchers have used computer simulations to model the accumulation of mutations in the human genome over time.7-13 It was found that over 90% of harmful mutations fail to be removed over time and are passed on to subsequent generations. Because this buildup of mutations would eventually reach a critical level, it was postulated that humans would eventually go extinct at a point called error catastrophe.14,15 This incessant process of genome degradation over time with each successive generation is called genetic entropy.14,15 More amazing, the process of genetic entropy is closely mirrored by the trend of declining human life-span documented in the Bible, especially in the 4,300 years since the global Flood.12,15-17 In addition to these genetic simulation studies, prominent evolutionists have shown that the problem of mutation accumulation in the human genome is accompanied by the inability of natural selection to remove them—an aspect of genetics completely contrary to evolutionary assumptions.5,18

The conclusions of these studies in modeling genetic entropy have been spectacularly confirmed by two additional secular studies based on empirical data that provided the same results, along with a timescale that paralleled biblical history.4,5 Both studies examined the amount of rare single nucleotide differences in the protein-coding regions (exons) of the human genome called the exome.19,20 One study analyzed 2,440 individuals and the other 6,515. Over 80% of the rare variability was considered to be harmful (associated with heritable disease), and researchers attributed the presence of these mutations to “weak purifying selection.”19 This essentially means that the alleged ability of natural selection to remove these harmful variants from human populations was somehow powerless to do so—the exact same results observed in the computer simulation studies discussed above.8,11-13

A major benefit of this type of genetic data is the fact that protein-coding regions are less tolerant of mutation than other parts of the genome, providing more reliable historical genetic information about human populations than more common types of variability. In addition, this type of data can be conveniently integrated into demographic models over known historical time and geographical space. When the researchers did this, they discovered a very recent and massive burst of human genetic diversification primarily associated with genetic entropy. One of the research papers stated, “The maximum likelihood time for accelerated growth was 5,115 years ago.”19 The other paper uncovered a similar timeline, which places the beginning of human genetic diversification close to the Genesis Flood and subsequent dispersion of people groups at the Tower of Babel. Importantly, this recent explosion of rare genetic variants clearly associated with genetic entropy also follows the same pattern of human life expectancy rapidly declining after the Flood.15,17

Mitochondrial DNA Variability and Genetic Clocks

One other important realm of molecular-clock research demonstrating a recent creation comes from examining mutation rates in mitochondrial genomes.21 The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of an animal is typically inherited from the mother’s egg cell, and the mtDNA mutation rates can accurately be measured in pedigrees to produce a specific clock for that species. When these clocks are calibrated not by evolutionary timescales but by using the organism’s known generation time, a more realistic and unbiased estimate of that creature’s genetic clock can be obtained. By comparing these mitochondrial clocks in fruit flies, roundworms, water fleas, and humans, one creation scientist demonstrated that a creation event for all of these organisms (including humans) occurred not more than 10,000 years ago.21

Other creation scientists also conducted a study into human mtDNA variation in which they statistically analyzed over 800 different sequences and reconstructed a close approximation of Eve’s original mitochondrial genome.15,22 They found that “the average human being is only about 22 mutations removed from the Eve sequence, although some individuals are as much as 100 mutations removed from Eve.”15 The most recent empirical estimate of the mutation rate in human mitochondria is about 0.5 per generation.23 Based on this rate, even for the most mutated mitochondrial sequences, it has been determined that “it would only require 200 generations (less than 6,000 years) to accumulate 100 mutations.”15

Lest critics say that these mtDNA studies are suspect because they were performed by creationists, it should be noted that evolutionists were actually the first to document these biblically supportive timeframes. Buried within a secular research paper back in 1997, the same trends recently observed by creationists regarding human mtDNA mutation rates were first reported but received little attention in the evolutionary community. The authors of the paper stated, “Using our empirical rate to calibrate the mtDNA molecular clock would result in an age of the mtDNA MRCA of only ~6,500 years.”24

One year later, another secular researcher remarked on this study, stating,

Regardless of the cause, evolutionists are most concerned about the effect of a faster mutation rate. For example, researchers have calculated that “mitochondrial Eve”—the woman whose mtDNA was ancestral to that in all living people—lived 100,000 to 200,000 years ago in Africa. Using the new clock, she would be a mere 6000 years old.25

The article continued to note that the new findings of faster mutation rates pointing to mitochondrial Eve about 6,000 years ago also contributed to the development of mtDNA research guidelines used in forensic investigations adopted by the FBI. Now, over 17 years later, and using even more mtDNA data, creation scientists are spectacularly confirming this previous unheralded discovery.

In addition to the mtDNA clock data, scientists have also analyzed the Y chromosomes of modern men, which they found to be only about 300 mutations on average different from the consensus sequence of a Y-chromosome Adam.15 The researchers state that “even if we assume a normal mutation rate for the Y chromosome (about 1 mutation per chromosome per generation), we would only need 300 generations (about six thousand years), to get 300 mutations.”15 As with the previous mtDNA work, this is the most straightforward way to apply the DNA clock concept, which also provides data in perfect agreement with a biblical timeframe for the origins of man.

Perhaps the most remarkable data supporting a young creation were recently published by a large group of secular scientists who are involved with mapping DNA variation across the entire human genome.26 This massive effort has just produced a huge dataset that the researchers call “a global reference for human genetic variation.” In their report, they state:

Analysis of shared haplotype lengths around f2 variants suggests a median common ancestor ~296 generations ago (7,410 to 8,892 years ago), although those confined within a population tend to be younger, with a shared common ancestor ~143 generations ago (3,570 to 4,284 years ago).26

Amazingly, these are fairly accurate dates for both the original creation event and the Babel dispersion after the Flood. The confined populations are descended from the people groups created at the Tower of Babel when the languages became confused. Of course, the median common ancestor of all humans would represent Adam and Eve.


The evolutionary paradigm of a molecular clock is deeply flawed in that it assumes evolution on a grand scale and literally involves conducting the whole analysis as a hypothetical exercise rather than as an empirical experiment. In contrast, creation scientists and even some secular researchers have taken a straightforward empirical approach without any assumptions about time, and the results yield dates of not more than about 6,000 to 10,000 years. Thus, when the mythical evolutionary restrictions are removed and the data are analyzed empirically, biblical timescales are the result.


Tomkins, J. P. and J. Bergman. 2015. Evolutionary molecular genetic clocks—a perpetual exercise in futility and failure. Journal of Creation. 29 (2): 26-35. Much of the content of this current article was published previously at a more technical level. See Tomkins, J. P. 2015. Empirical genetic clocks give biblical timelines. Journal of Creation. 29 (2): 3-5.
Nachman, M. W. and S. L. Crowell. 2000. Estimate of the mutation rate per nucleotide in humans. Genetics. 156 (1): 297-304.
Kondrashov, A. S. 2003. Direct estimates of human per nucleotide mutation rates at 20 loci causing Mendelian diseases. Human Mutation. 21 (1): 12-27.
Xue, Y. et al. 2009. Human Y Chromosome Base-Substitution Mutation Rate Measured by Direct Sequencing in a Deep-Rooting Pedigree. Current Biology. 19 (17): 1453-1457.
Lynch, M. 2010. Rate, molecular spectrum, and consequences of human mutation. Proceedings of the National Academy Science. 107 (3): 961-968.
Campbell, C. D. and E. E. Eichler. 2013. Properties and rates of germline mutations in humans. Trends in Genetics. 29 (10): 575-584.
Sanford, J. et al. 2007. Mendel’s Accountant: A biologically realistic forward-time population genetics program. Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience. 8 (2): 147-165.
Sanford, J. et al. 2007. Using Computer Simulation to Understand Mutation Accumulation Dynamics and Genetic Load. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 4488: 386-392.
Sanford, J. C. and C. W. Nelson. 2012. The Next Step in Understanding Population Dynamics: Comprehensive Numerical Simulation. Studies in Population Genetics. M. C. Fusté, ed. InTech, 117-136.
Brewer, W. H., J. R. Baumgardner, and J. C. Sanford. 2013. Using Numerical Simulation to Test the “Mutation-Count” Hypothesis. Biological Information: New Perspectives. R. J. Marks III et al, eds. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Publishing, 298-311.
Gibson, P. et al. 2013. Can Purifying Natural Selection Preserve Biological Information? Biological Information: New Perspectives. R. J. Marks III et al, eds. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Publishing, 232-263.
Nelson, C. W. and J. C. Sanford. 2013. Computational Evolution Experiments Reveal a Net Loss of Genetic Information Despite Selection. Biological Information: New Perspectives. R. J. Marks III et al, eds. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Publishing, 338-368.
Sanford, J. C., J. R. Baumgardner, and W. H. Brewer. 2013. Selection Threshold Severely Constrains Capture of Beneficial Mutations. Biological Information: New Perspectives. R. J. Marks III et al, eds. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Publishing, 264-297.
Sanford, J. 2008. Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome, 3rd ed. Waterloo, NY: FMS Publications.
Sanford, J. C. and R. W. Carter. 2014. In Light of Genetics...Adam, Eve, and the Creation/Fall. Christian Apologetics Journal. 12 (2): 51-98.
Osgood, J. 1981. The Date of Noah’s Flood. Creation. 4 (1): 10-13.
Sanford, J., J. Pamplin, and C. Rupe. Genetic Entropy Recorded in the Bible? FMS Foundation. Posted on July 2014.
Crow, J. F. 1997. The high spontaneous mutation rate: Is it a health risk? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 94 (16): 8380-8386.
Tennessen, J. A. et al. 2012. Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes. Science. 337 (6090): 64-69.
Fu, W. et al. 2013. Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants. Nature. 493 (7431): 216-220.
Jeanson, N. 2013. Recent, Functionally Diverse Origin for Mitochondrial Genes from ~2700 Metazoan Species. Answers Research Journal. 6: 467-501.
Carter, R. W. 2007. Mitochondrial diversity within modern human populations. Nucleic Acids Research. 35 (9): 3039-3045.
Madrigal, L. et al. 2012. High mitochondrial mutation rates estimated from deep-rooting costa rican pedigrees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 148 (3): 327-333.
Parsons, T. J. et al. 1997. A high observed substitution rate in the human mitochondrial DNA control region. Nature Genetics. 15 (4): 363-368.
Gibbons, A. 1998. Calibrating the Mitochondrial Clock. Science. 279 (5347): 28-29. Emphasis added.
The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium. 2015. A global reference for human genetic variation. Nature. 526 (7571): 68-74.
* Dr. Tomkins is Research Associate at the Institute for Creation Research and received his Ph.D. in genetics from Clemson University.

Cite this article: Jeffrey P. Tomkins, Ph.D. 2015. Genetic Clocks Verify Recent Creation. Acts & Facts. 44 (12).

Science facts that make you go HHM!

Evolutionary cosmologists have declared the universe to be 13.8 by old. They say they are looking at light from a galaxy 13.2 billion light years away!

Besides the physics impossibility of nothing exploding and forming enough material to make a galaxy and in 600 million years travel 20X the speed of light to get to a point in space time to shine light 13.2 billion years ago (when the universe was only supposedly 600 million years young) there is another reality that makes one go HUH?

Astrophysicists and astronomers measure distances in deep space time by the red shift in light. Simple fact, the further light travels the more it bends to the red.

We also know that light travels as both particles and waves and light has mass.

But now comes the two intractable problems.

Gravity bends light waves! and bends them longer to the red!

So the light from that distant galaxy has to travel over 78,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 miles and pass through galaxies and objects all pulling on that light and shifting it more and more to the red.

Also if Einstein and other theorists are correct- space itself is subject to gravity and can be bent by gravitational forces. So space itself is also bending light waves more and more to the red thus making red shift a very very very flawed method of dating and measurement for deep space/time.

am I suggesting the universe is much more compact? No! What I am saying is that given the facts above red shift is useless as a tool for measuring distance and or time!

Quote of the Day

Psalm 8 King James Version (KJV)
8 O Lord, our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens.

2 Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength because of thine enemies, that thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger.

3 When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained;

4 What is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, that thou visitest him?

5 For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour.

Just wondering.....

Why does the left want people out of women's' wombs and peoples bedrooms, but they want to control every other aspect of our lives?

What we can wear, what is acceptable speech or not, how much we should be allowed to earn, vehicles etc.

Bronze-Age DNA Confirms Babel Dispersion


Scientists used new techniques to sequence 101 ancient human genomes believed to be from Bronze-Age populations in Europe. Their findings indicate a massive migratory influx of genetic diversity just a few thousand years ago. This data also coincides with known language diversification patterns, providing strong evidence for the dispersion of people groups at the Tower of Babel.

The so-called Bronze Age, estimated by secular researchers to span from 1,000 to 3,000 B.C., is thought to be a time of great cultural change due to the diversity of artifacts typically found with ritually buried human skeletons. In this current report, the researchers stated that "the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia."1

To put the Bronze-Age theory to the test, a sizeable group of scientists undertook the largest ancient DNA sequencing project to date on 101 different human remains thought to be associated with the Bronze Age era found across Eurasia. In addition, they used a new suite of DNA extraction and sequencing protocols that greatly improved the accuracy of the data and reduced modern human DNA contamination—a major problem in the study of ancient DNA.

Compared to modern Eurasians whose genes have been mixing together for several thousand years, these ancient remains showed a variety of distinct relatively unmixed genetic lineages. This is exactly what one would expect from human DNA sampled immediately after a massive migration that followed a genetic bottleneck. In fact, previous research showed that this type of genetic data also closely correlates with the geographical dispersion and the distribution of languages.2,3 In addition, several other recent studies analyzing the rare variation in the protein-coding regions of modern human genomes, have concluded that the human genome has diversified not more than about 5,000 years ago.4-7

While many evolutionary scientists find such results shocking and contentious in light of their failed historical paradigms, the accumulating data closely aligns with the most accurate ancient history account known to man: the Bible. As indicated in the Bible, humans experienced a genetic bottleneck about 4,400 years ago when the earth began to be repopulated through Noah's family—eight people who survived the global flood aboard the ark.

The Bible also explains that directly after the Flood, mankind disobeyed God's command to replenish and fill the earth. Instead, humans congregated in one geographic location and attempted to re-establish the pre-Flood pagan culture that caused the earth to be filled with violence and wickedness—bringing about God's judgment with the global Flood. Therefore, God confused their language and foiled their rebellious ambitions, forcing them to split off into different people groups and migrate to new regions around the globe. This is the underlying basis of diversity among nations and people groups that we see today—including an explanation for the new genetic data observed in the ancient Eurasian human remains just reported.


Allentoft, M. E. et al. 2105. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature. 522 (7555): 167-174.
Tomkins, J. 2014. Out of Babel—Not Africa. Creation Science Update. Posted on February 16, 2015, accessed June 22, 2015.
Creanza, N. et al. 2015. A comparison of worldwide phonemic and genetic variation in human populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (5): 1265-1272.
Tomkins, J. 2012. Human DNA Variation Linked to Biblical Event Timeline. Creation Science Update. Posted on July 23, 2012, accessed June 22, 2015
Tomkins, J. 2013. Genetics Research Confirms Biblical Timeline. Creation Science Update. Posted on January 29, 2013, accessed June 22, 2015.
Tennessen, J. et al. 2012. Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes. Science. 337 (6090): 64-69.
Fu, W. et al. Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants. Nature. 493 (7431): 216-220.
Image credit: Copyright © 2015 N. Shishlina. Adapted for use in accordance with federal copyright (fair use doctrine) law. Usage by ICR does not imply endorsement of copyright holder.

*Dr. Tomkins is Research Associate at the Institute for Creation Research and received his Ph.D. in genetics from Clemson University.

Quote of the Day

Ephesians 1 King James Version (KJV)

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ:

4 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:

5 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,

6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.

7 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;

For our colleagues here on the left!

An honest question for you.

Why do you disdain the U.S. Constitution as much as you do???

Quote of the Day

Psalm 24 King James Version (KJV)
24 The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein.

2 For he hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods.

3 Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord? or who shall stand in his holy place?

4 He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn deceitfully.

5 He shall receive the blessing from the Lord, and righteousness from the God of his salvation.
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